TREATED LESIONS

Bronchial asthma

Anotaion:
Bronchial asthma is a lesion, specified by episodic elevation of resistance or obstruction against the airflow in respiratory tract, with attacks of difficult breathing and typical clinical symptoms – thorax whistling. Most often, there is allergic reaction and always bronchial hyper-reactivity.

Description:

Bronchial asthma is a lesion, specified by episodic elevation of resistance or obstruction against the airflow in respiratory tract, with attacks of difficult breathing and typical clinical symptoms – thorax whistling. Most often, there is allergic reaction and always bronchial hyper-reactivity. Bronchial asthma is a frequent lesion, especially in industrially developed countries. It is observed more often than cancer, tuberculosis and rheumatism. Most often the lesion start prior to 10 years of age. In this age the boys suffer more often than the girls /4:1; 3:1/. In later ages, the frequency is approximately equal in men and women. Many factors play role for arising of bronchial asthma, part of which are not clarified : Allergic factors significant in 70-90% of the patients with bronchial asthma. According to the type and path of allergens penetrations, they are divided into external and internal. Clinical forms: according to the leading reason and immunological mechanism, bronchial asthma is divided into: 1. Atopic bronchial asthma -  with the leading role of feathering, etc. This form of bronchial asthma is met mainly in persons under 35 years of age /most often in children and adolescents/. 2. Infectious-allergic bronchial asthma – etiological role play the infectious processes in respiratory tract, most often in the upper one, rarely in peripheral bronchiectasis or in other organs /pyelitis, cholecystitis/. 3. Mixed bronchial asthma: there are data for atopic as well as for infectious-allergic bronchial asthma. 4. Other forms: "aspirin" asthma; provoked by physical efforts asthma, etc. Clinical picture – the most specific symptom of bronchial asthma is the asthmatic attack, expression of resulting bronchial obstruction. Most often, it develops instantly, and rarely is preceded by prodromal phenomena /vasomotor reaction with abundant watery secretion from the nose, frequent coughing, nose dryness/, cough, wheeze, snoring breathing, vegetative symptoms, etc. Treatment: International consensus is adopted for treatment of bronchial asthma, which is introduced in Bulgaria too. Treatment of bronchial asthma is successful, especially if started immediately after early correct diagnosis and is carried out by specialist in pulmonary diseases.


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